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HPM 52016: Public Health Administration: Says Who? Levels of Evidence

Levels of evidence pyramid

The level of evidence can usefully be imagined as a pyramid.  The highest quality of evidence, such as systematic reviews and meta-analysis is much less common than unfiltered sources like case reports.  Seek the highest quality of evidence but sometimes your research question(s) will be limited to lower levels of evidence.

EBM Pyramid and EBM Page Generator, copyright 2006 Trustees of Dartmouth College and Yale University. All Rights Reserved.
Produced by Jan Glover, David Izzo, Karen Odato and Lei Wang.

Existing Policy

It may be most helpful to begin by looking at existing public health policy or proposed policy.  Some recommended resources include: 

Systematic review of evidence and analysis (filtered)

A systematic review attempts to identify, appraise and synthesize all the empirical evidence that meets pre-specified eligibility criteria to answer a given research question. Researchers conducting systematic reviews use explicit methods aimed at minimizing bias, in order to produce more reliable findings that can be used to inform decision making. (See Section 1.2 in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.)

Research databases (unfiltered)