This guide has been created as a comparison between APA 7th Edition (American Psychological Association) style and AMA 11th Edition (American Medical Association) style.
Many disciplines, including Nursing and Public Health, may need to write and publish using both of these styles. This guide lays out the major differences side-by-side.
- APA uses an Author/Date in-text citation system (Smith, 2017) whereas AMA uses a superscript numbering system. "Smith² argues that...."
- APA requires page numbers for direct quotes (material quoted verbatim in quotation marks),this is optional when using AMA
- APA organizes the References list alphabetically by first author name. AMA organizes the References list numerically based upon the order of appearance in the text of the paper
- APA lists DOI numbers as complete live links. Example: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmn.2021.11.009
- AMA lists only the DOI number. Example: doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2021.11.009