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This article by the Silicon Valley Business Journal discusses Facebook's attempts to implement a "satire" tag in their newsfeed that began last year. The feature works at times but it does not seem to be live as of spring 2015.
Run by the Tampa Bay Times, this site is a great resource of fact-checking political stories. They have written several good pieces helping to make sense of stories that started at satire sites and were accepted as real.
Enter a URL into this specialized search engine and find out whether the site you are looking at is a legitimate source or not. This site does a good job of determining what is "real" or not, but it does not hurt to learn how to do that for yourself.
PBS Newshour Extra provides and archive filled with lesson plans for educators. This plan, suggested for students grades 9-12, is geared toward the following objectives: Become familiar with the underlying concepts behind satire; Analyze the interaction between satire and current events; Apply their knowledge of satire and the news to create their own satirical pieces.
This site is the go-to for people looking for more information or to debunk urban legends. Naturally, they often cover Internet news stories that were mistaken as real such as the not too long ago one about Ebola zombies.
This article by Heather L. LaMarre, Kristen D. Landreville, and Michael A. Beam explores people's reaction to the political satire show The Colbert Report. They found that a person's political belief highly affects their understanding of the show.