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APA - 6th edition: Electronic Articles

Electronic Articles

Electronic articles are ones that you can find the full-text of online, either via a library database like Education Research Complete, or via GoogleScholar. The citations to electronic articles are very similar to print articles, however you do need additional information. There is also no period at the end of the citation, and the url should not be hyperlinked (you may have to remove the hyperlink if you use Microsoft Word).

To write a citation for an electronic article you need the following pieces of information:

  • Author(s)
  • Publication date (this could be the year, or the year and month)
  • Article title
  • Journal or Magazine title (this is italicized)
  • Volume number (this is italicized)
  • Issue number (sometimes you need this and sometimes you don't, it depends on how the journal pages itself. If each issue begins on with page 1 then you need the issue number. If the pages numbers continue from the previous issue then you do not need the issue number.)
  • Page numbers
  • DOI number or URL of the journal or magazine

Examples (remember in your references these would be double-spaced!):

Atwater, M. M., Freeman, T., Butler, M. B., & Draper-Morris, J. (2010). A case study of science teacher candidates' understandings and actions related to the culturally responsive teaching of 'other' students. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 5, 287-318. Retrieved from (electronic journal article that does not have a doi number)

Coplan, R. J., & Weeks, M. (2010). Unsociability in middle childhood: Conceptualization, assessment, and associations with socioemotional functioning. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56, 105-130. Retrieved from (electronic journal article that does not have a doi number)

Hann, E., & Zablocki, M. (2010). Response to intervention and advocating for special education needs. Children's Rights Litigation, 12(4), 1-17. Retrieved from (electronic magazine, no month provided, no doi number) 

McCall, A. L. (2010). Teaching powerful social studies ideas through literature circles. Social Studies, 101, 152-159. doi: 10.1080/00377990903284104 (electronic journal article that has a doi number)

Ryder, J., Tunmer, W., & Greaney, K. (2008). Explicit instruction in phonemic awareness and phonemically based decoding skills as an intervention strategy for struggling readers in whole language classrooms. Reading and Writing, 21, 349-369. doi: 10.1007/s11145-007-9080-z (electronic journal article that has a doi number)


DOI vs. URL?

DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. This is a unique number that matches a particular article. The DOI number provides a quick way for others to locate a specific article. If an article has a DOI number, that number can be entered into the crossref database, and the citation information will be provided. Not all articles have a DOI number. If an article does have a DOI number, it will be given on the abstract page in the database OR on the first page of the article.

If no DOI number is provided you need to find the URL of the journal's website. This is NOT the website to the database! An easy way to locate the journal URL is to use Google and type in the journal title. You can normally locate the publisher's page.